Run PyXtal executables

Currently, we provide several utilities to the users so that they can run the code from command line with Python scripting. They include:

  • a tool to generate atomic/molecular crystals

  • a tool to access the symmetry information

After a successfull installation, all of them can be accessed by invoking the -h command:

$ -h
             ______       _    _          _
            (_____ \     \ \  / /        | |
             _____) )   _ \ \/ / |_  ____| |
            |  ____/ | | | )  (|  _)/ _  | |
            | |    | |_| |/ /\ \ |_( (_| | |___
            |_|     \__  /_/  \_\___)__|_|_____)

----------------------(version 0.1.4 )----------------------

A Python package for random crystal generation
The source code is available at
Developed by Zhu's group at University of Nevada Las Vegas

usage: [-h] [-s sg] [-e element] [-n numIons] [-f factor]
                      [-a attempts] [-o outdir] [-d dimension] [-t thickness]

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -s sg, --symmetry sg  desired symmetry, number or string, e.g., 36, Pbca, Ih
  -e element, --element element
                        desired elements: e.g., Li
  -n numIons, --numIons numIons/numMols
                        desired numbers of atoms: 16
  -f factor, --factor factor
                        volume factor: default 1.0
  -a attempts, --attempts attempts
                        number of crystals to generate: default 1
  -o outdir, --outdir outdir
                        Directory for storing output cif files: default 'out'
  -d dimension, --dimension dimension
                        desired dimension: (3, 2, 1, 0): default 3
  -t thickness, --thickness thickness
                        Thickness of a 2D crystal, or area of a 1D crystal,
                        None generates a value automatically: default None
  -m, --molecular       molecular? default: False

PyXtal_symmetry utility is a utility to handle the generation of moelcular crystals.

  • -d, the dimension, e.g., 3, 2, 1, 0. The defult is 3.

  • -s: the target symmetry, either by string (e.g., Ih, Pbca) and integer (61).

$ -s 36

-- Space group # 36 (Cmc2_1)--
8b site symm: 1
  x, y, z
  -x, -y, z+1/2
  x, -y, z+1/2
  -x, y, z
  x+1/2, y+1/2, z
  -x+1/2, -y+1/2, z+1/2
  x+1/2, -y+1/2, z+1/2
  -x+1/2, y+1/2, z
4a site symm: m..
  0, y, z
  0, -y, z+1/2
  1/2, y+1/2, z
  1/2, -y+1/2, z+1/2
$ -s 20 -d 2

-- Layer group # 20 (p2_122)--
4d site symm: 1
  x, y, z
  x+1/2, -y, -z
  -x+1/2, y, -z
  -x, -y, z
2c site symm: .2.
  1/4, y, 0
  3/4, -y, 0
2b site symm: ..2
  0, 1/2, z
  1/2, 1/2, -z
2a site symm: ..2
  0, 0, z
  1/2, 0, -z

if the -s tag is not given, it will output the list of all possible symmetry groups for the given dimension.

$ -d 3
1            P1
2           P-1
3            P2
4          P2_1
5            C2
6            Pm
7            Pc
8            Cm
9            Cc
10         P2/m
11       P2_1/m
12         C2/m
13         P2/c
14       P2_1/c
15         C2/c
16         P222
17       P222_1
18     P2_12_12
19   P2_12_12_1
20       C222_1
212       P4332
213      P4_132
214      I4_132
215       P-43m
216       F-43m
217       I-43m
218       P-43n
219       F-43c
220       I-43d
221       Pm-3m
222       Pn-3n
223       Pm-3n
224       Pn-3m
225       Fm-3m
226       Fm-3c
227       Fd-3m
228       Fd-3c
229       Im-3m
230       Ia-3d

PyXtal_main utility is a utility to handle the generation of atomic crystals. Typically, four arguments are requried to describe the target structure:

  • -d, the dimension, e.g., 3, 2, 1, 0.

  • -s: the target symmetry (space, layer, rod, point group information), either by string (e.g., Ih, Pbca) and integer (61).

  • -e: the list of elements, e.g., Si, Si, O

  • -n: the number of atoms in the target primitive unit cell, e.g., 12, 4, 8. The size should be consistent with the -e tag.

For group setting, please refer to the Group Setting page. To our knowledge, PyXtal is perhaps the only open source code which can handle the crystal symmetry generation from 0 to 3 dimensional systems. Below we will introduce its capability in detail.

A quick example of C60

Below is a quick example to generate a random C60 clusters with icosahedral (Ih) symmetry.

$ -e C -n 60 -d 0 -s Ih

Symmetry requested: 56(Ih), generated: Ih
Output to out/

As described in the screen output, the run will generate a file called out/ which stores the structural information about C60. One can thus visualize via different third-party packages. For instance, below is the output from VESTA.


Note that this is a random process. So each time the structure is different.

3D crystals

By default, -d tag is 3, which means to generate 3D crystal. Below is a quick example to generate a diamond like crystals for carbon.

$ -e C -n 8 -s 227

Symmetry requested: 227(Fd-3m), generated: Fd-3m
Output to out/C8.cif

It is important to note that we specified 8 for -n tag, which means 8 carbon atoms in the conventional unit cell.

2D and 1D crystals

2D and 1D crystals need one more argument to specify the confinement. For 2D crystal, the thickness needs to be provided through -t tag in Angstrom. Below is an example fo generating a 2D MoS2 crystal.

$ -e Mo,S -n 1,2 -s 77 -d 2 -t 2.4

Symmetry requested: 77(p6mm), generated: P6mm
Output to out/Mo1S2.cif

Molecular crystals occupying general Wyckoff positions

Below is an example to generate of random crystal for a famous drug molecule ROY.

$ -m -e ROY -n 4 -s P2_12_12_1

Symmetry requested: 19 (P2_12_12_1), generated: P2_12_12_1, vol: 2895.37 A^3
Output to out/S4O8N12C48H36.cif

Molecular crystals occupying special Wyckoff positions

An import feature of PyXtal is that the program can automatically generate molecular crystals occupying special Wyckoff positions. This is very useful for molecules with high internal symmetry. During crystallization, these molecule can occupy some special Wyckoff positions as long as the site symmetry is compatible with the molecular symmetry. For instance, the space group Cmc_21 has 4 symmetry operations (mm2) in its primitive cell. However, we can still generate a structure with 2 molecules for C60 by placing them to the special Wyckoff position. This will be automatically processed by our internal algorithm.

$ -m -e C60 -n 2 -s 36

How to define the molecules?

Please ref to the section of Molecule.